Architectural Terms And Meanings


ARCHITECTURAL TERMS

AESTHETICS –The branch of philosophy thatstudies the principles of beauty
ANIMATION – The process of making films, videos and computergames in which drawings or models of people and animals seem to move.
ARCH– A curved structure that support the weight ofsomething above it.
ART– The use of imagination to express ideas or feelings,particularly in painting, drawing or sculpture.
ARTDECO –Anarchitectural style which was fashionable during the 1920s and 30s. Themovement sometimes used modern materials such as cast concrete and the stylesuggested modernity, technology and motion. Stained and leaded glass wassometimes used and is often of a creative, geometric design.
ASHLAR– Dressed stonework of any type, where the blocks havesquared sides, carefully squared corners, and are laid in regular courses,usually with fine joints. The faces of the stones, called ashlars, aregenerally smooth and polished, but can be tooled or have a decorativetreatment.
ATTIC– A room or space within the roof of a house.
BALANCE– A condition of being steady or opposites beingequal, Equilibrium.
Balustrade: a parapet or stair rail composed of uprights(balusters) carrying a coping or railing.
BASEMENT– A room or area in a building partly or completelybelow the level of the ground.
BEAM–horizontal structural member, usually made of wood,bearing a load.
BEAUTY– An assemblage of perfections through which an objectis rendered pleasing to the eye.
Bracket: Any projection from the face of a wall whose purposeis to support a structure or object.
BRICK– Baked clay used for building walls usually.
BUTTRESS: A mass of masonry built against or projecting from awall either to stabilise, from the lateral thrust of an arch roof or vault, orto enable the wall to be thinner.
CALLIGRAPHY– Beautiful handwriting that u do with a pen or brush.
CANTILEVER-a beam supported or fixed at one end carrying a loadat the other.
CAPITAL: The head or crowing feature of a column.
CASCADE– A small waterfall.
CEILING– The top inside surface of a room.
CERAMIC– An object made of clay that has been madepermanently hard by heat.
CHART- A page or sheet of information in the form ofdiagrams, list of figures etc.
CLASSICALARCHITECTURE-Architecturemodeled after the buildings of ancient Greece and Rome.

COLOUR– The appearance that things have that result from theway in which they reflect light.
COLUMN– A vertical post which supports and decorates abuilding or stands alone as a monument.
CONCRETE– Building material that is made by mixing togethercement, sand, small stones and water.
CONSTRUCTION– The method or process of making or building something.
CONTRAST– An extremely opposite difference between two or morethings or spaces that is clearly visible when they are compared.
COST– The amount of money that you need in order to buy,make or do something.
COURT– An area open to the sky and mostly or entirelysurrounded by walls of buildings.
DESIGN– The general arrangement of different parts ofsomething that is made such as a building, book, machine etc.
DOME– Round roof of a building with circular base.
Dormer: Any window which projects from the pitch of a roof.
DWELLING– A house built for habitation
ENCLOSURE– A covering for a particular thing or area.
ENVIRONMENT– The condition that affect the behavior anddevelopment of something.
ESTIMATE– A judgement that you make without having the exactdetails or figure about the size, amount, cost etc.
FAÇADE-The front or principal face of a building; sometimesone of its sides.

FIREPLACE – A recess or structure in or on which a fire isbuilt, especially that part of chimney that opens into a room for warming up.
FINIAL: a formal ornamentation fixed to the top of a peak,arch, gable, etc.
FLOOR– The level base surface of a room or hall upon whichone stands or walk. Also a continuous supporting surface extending horizontallythroughout a building, having a number of rooms and constituting one level instructure.
FloorPlan- The drawing showing arrangement of rooms/spaces in abuilding.
FOUNDATION– The sub-structure of a building partially or totallybelow the soil which supports and transfers the load to the earth.
FRAME– A structure that gives shape or support forencasing, holding or bordering.
GARGOYLE-Grotesquely carved faces projecting from a building.Gargoyles originally were used as spouts to carry water away from the wall ofgothic
cathedrals.
GAZEBO– A structure commanding a wide view such as a summerhouse or a projecting window or balcony.
GEOMETRY– The mathematical branch that deals with themeasurements and relationship of angles, lines, surfaces and solids.
GIRDER– A long strong beam used for building, bridge etc.
GLASS– A hard usually transparent substance used for makingwindows, facades etc.
GRAPHICS– Designs, drawings etc. that are used especially inproduction of books, magazines etc.
HARMONY– A pleasing combination of related things.
HOUSE– A building intended for human habitation especiallyone used as residence of a family or a single tenant.
JOINERY– The art of work of joining, finishes and wood works.
KEYSTONE: The large stone at the centre of the arch, oftenlarger and decorated.
KIOSK– An open ornamental summer house or small space whichsupports environment.
LANDSCAPE– A stretch of country as seen from a single angle orpoint or a well-designed outside space with plants and elements of design.
LAWN– An area of ground covered in short grasses.
LEANTO ROOF: A roof which is built up against a vertical wall andhas one slope only.
LINTEL: The horizontal beam bridging an opening in a wall.
MAP– Drawing or plan of a particular region or earth’ssurface.
MASONARY– The art of work of laying materials usually brick orstone for walls.
METAL– A type of solid mineral substance which heat andelectricity can travel through and being used as a construction material.
MODEL– A object usually in miniature representingaccurately something to be made or already existing.
MODELLING– The art or activity of making models, objects orshapes.
MOULDING: The shaped profile given to any feature whichprojects from the face of a wall.
MULLION- dividers placed inside a window; typically made ofwood or metal.
NEIGHBOURHOOD– The people collectively who dwell in a vicinity.
NEST– Any cozy place or abode, a retreat.
NICHE: A recess in a wall, usually for holding a statue orurn.
ORDER–A classical style of architecture. The three primaryorders, used in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, are, chronologically: theDoric order, the Ionic order, and the Corinthian order.
ORNAMENT– An object that is used as decoration in room, gardenetc.
PAINTING– The art of using paint to produce picture or todecorate a surface.
PATIO– A flat, hard area outside and usually behind a housewhere people can sit.
PAVING– A flat surface on the ground made by stones or othermaterials.
PAVILION– A movable or open structure for temporary shelter; alarge tent.
PARAPET: a wall which rises above another structure such as aroof or terrace.
PERSPECTIVE– The art of creating an effect of depth and distancein a space.
PLAN– A drawing showing the proportion and relation ofparts of a building.
PLASTER– A substance that is put on the walls and ceiling togive them a smooth or hard finish.
PROPORTION– A relationship of one thing to another insize,amount etc.
RAFTERS-The inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, andto which the roof covering is affixed.
ROOFRIDGE- The horizontal intersection of two roof slopes atthe top of a roof.
RENDERING– A method of adding color, texture, surface detailingon a drawing to get an exact idea about volume perception and proportion ofdistances.
RHYTHM– Movement characterized by a patterned repetition oralternation of formatting elements in the same or modified form.
RURAL– something connected with country-side where most ofthe inhabitants depend on agriculture.
SECTION-An architectural drawing showing a building or objectas if were cut open along a plane passing vertically through it.
SCALE– The relation between the actual size of somethingand its size on the map.
SCIOGRAPHY– The study of shadows of objects or structuralelements of a building in different time of a day or a year.
SCULPTURE– A work of art, that is a solid figure or object madeby carving or shaping wood, stones etc.
SIGN– A mark by which anything is made known.
SITE– A place where a building, town was or is or will besituated.
SKYSCRAPER – A very tall building which we feel like touching thesky.
SPACEFRAME – Thin like light weight rigid structure constructedfrom interlocking struts in a geometrical pattern.
SYMBOL– A sign, number etc. that has a fixed meaning.
TERRACOTA–Glazed or unglazed fired clay tiles, often elaborate,used to face buildings.
TRUSS- A rigid framework, as of wooden beams or metal bars,which supports a structure, such as a roof.

UNITY– The state or quality of being combined into one asthe ordering of the elements in an artistic way that constitutes a whole orpromotes a singleness of effect.
VAULT– An arched structure stones, bricks or reinforcedconcrete etc. forming a ceiling or roof over a hall, room or other wholly orpartially enclosed space.
VERANDA: An open shelter or gallery in front of a buildingwith a lean-to roof supported by verticals of timber or iron.
VERNACULAR: An indigenous building constructed of locallyavailable materials, to local detail, usually without the benefit of anarchitect. They were built for purpose by stonemasons.




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